Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.
What factors affect metabolism of a drug?
Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism).
What are three things that can affect drug metabolism?
Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.
What are the factors affecting metabolism?
Your metabolic rate is influenced by many factors – including age, gender, muscle-to-fat ratio, amount of physical activity and hormone function.
How does genetic factors affect drug metabolism?
Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for many drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. This gives rise to distinct population phenotypes of persons who have metabolism capabilities ranging from extremely poor to extremely fast.
Which factor is most important for drug metabolism?
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) is considered to be the most influential enzyme in the drug metabolism, which led to the development of many models such as QSAR for the prediction of the metabolism of molecules by the CYP enzyme.
What are the factors influencing xenobiotic metabolism?
Genetic variation includes gender, epigenetics, and polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing components such as Phase I and II enzymes, transporters, receptors, and ion channels. Age is also another host factor that can have physiological effects and thus affect xenobiotic metabolism and elimination.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
How does liver disease affect drug metabolism?
Cirrhosis causes changes in the architecture of the liver leading to changes in blood flow, protein binding, and drug metabolizing enzymes. Drug metabolizing enzymes are primarily decreased due to loss of liver tissue. However, not all enzyme activities are reduced and some are only altered in specific cases.
What factors can affect drug metabolism in an elderly?
Aging results in a number of significant changes in the human liver including reductions in liver blood flow, size, drug-metabolizing enzyme content, and pseudocapillarization. Drug metabolism is also influenced by comorbid disease, frailty, concomitant medicines, and (epi)genetics.
What are symptoms of high metabolism?
Fast metabolism symptoms or signs of high metabolism may include:
- Weight loss.
- Elevated heart rate.
- Feeling hot and sweaty often.
- Feeling hungry often throughout the day.
What foods help metabolism?
The 12 Best Foods to Boost Your Metabolism
- Protein-Rich Foods. Protein-rich foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy, legumes, nuts and seeds, could help increase your metabolism for a few hours. …
- Iron, Zinc and Selenium-Rich Foods. …
- Chili Peppers. …
- Coffee. …
- Tea. …
- Legumes and Pulses. …
- Metabolism-Boosting Spices. …
What is the cause of fast metabolism?
Body size, age, gender and genes all play a role in the speed of your metabolism. Muscle cells require more energy to maintain than fat cells, so people with more muscle than fat tend to have a faster metabolism. As we get older, we tend to gain fat and lose muscle.
How does CYP2C19 affect metabolism?
Most often, changes in the CYP2C19 gene lead to impaired metabolism of these drugs, which reduces their effectiveness. One change in the CYP2C19 gene (known as CYP2C19*17) increases the enzyme’s ability to metabolize drugs.
How does the environment affect drug metabolism?
Results: Various environmental contaminants like pesticides effectively alter drug metabolism at various levels under the influence of pharmacogenomics, which interferes with pharmacokinetics of drug metabolism.
How does body weight affect drug response?
As clearance determines a drug’s maintenance dose, clinicians should consider how lean body weight, rather than total body weight, impacts dosing. When lean body weight increases there will be a corresponding increase in drug clearance and an increased dose may be required.