How age can affect the metabolism and excretion of medications?

As age increases, the functions of tissues and organs in the body gradually decline. Due to this decline in organ function, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME processes) in elderly people are worse than those of young people.

How does age factor affect drug metabolism?

Thus, age-related changes in drug metabolism should be considered a typical phenotypic characteristic of the aging process. Generally, older age is associated with increased blood concentrations of drugs and altered metabolism, reduced effectiveness, and increased risk of adverse reactions for many medications (2).

How does age affect excretion?

Excretion predominantly occurs via renal elimination in the kidneys. The total size of the kidneys decreases with age, as does the number of functioning nephrons. There is also decreased renal blood flow with increasing age. Aging is also accompanied by a reduction in both glomerular function and tubular function.

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How is drug metabolism different in the elderly?

Overall hepatic metabolism of many drugs through the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system decreases with age. For drugs with decreased hepatic metabolism (see table Effect of Aging on Metabolism and Elimination of Some Drugs), clearance typically decreases 30 to 40%.

How does age affect medication?

As we age, physiological changes can affect the way our body metabolises drugs, causing adverse reactions. Older people are more likely to be taking multiple medications (‘polypharmacy’), which increases the risk of medications being implicated in hospital admissions.

What are the factors affecting drug metabolism?

Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.

How does weight affect drug effectiveness?

Changes in body weight can influence the amount of medicine you need to take and how long it stays in your body. The circulatory system may slow down, which can affect how fast drugs get to the liver and kidneys.

What four routes are drugs excreted?

Some drugs are excreted in saliva, sweat, breast milk, and even exhaled air. Most are excreted in small amounts.

What age do our bodies generally begin to decline?

New study says decline begins in our 50s

By the time you reach your 50s, your strength, balance and endurance are already beginning to wane — much earlier than previously thought, according to a new study.

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How does gender affect drug effectiveness?

Physiologic differences between men and women affect drug activity, including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics in women is affected by lower body weight, slower gastrointestinal motility, less intestinal enzymatic activity, and slower glomerular filtration rate.

What are the two most important organs for drug metabolism?

The principal organs of drug metabolism are the liver and (for orally taken drugs) the small intestine.

How many drugs does the average senior take each day?

Research shows that the average older adult takes four or more prescription drugs each day, but a whopping 39 percent of seniors take five or more prescriptions each day. While each one was created to treat or manage a specific medical problem, each also comes with its own risks and side effects.

How many seniors require hospitalization due to medication problems?

About 350,000 patients each year need to be hospitalized for further treatment after emergency visits for adverse drug events. People typically take more medicines as they age, and the risk of adverse events may increase as more people take more medicines.

What is the most common medication problem in the elderly?

Warfarin is one of the most common causes of medication-related hospitalizations in older adults. To reduce the risk of serious problems, one may need to apply extra care in monitoring warfarin effect (via the prothrombin blood test) and extra care in checking for interactions when a new drug is prescribed.

What is the most common adverse drug effect seen in the elderly?

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations.

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What can decrease medication effectiveness?

Things That Can Affect Your Medication

  • 1 / 15. Some Things Don’t Mix Well. You may know that some medicines don’t work well together. …
  • 2 / 15. Grapefruit. …
  • 3 / 15. Milk. …
  • 4 / 15. Licorice. …
  • 5 / 15. Chocolate. …
  • 6 / 15. Iron Supplement. …
  • 7 / 15. Alcohol. …
  • 8 / 15. Coffee.
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