Cardiovascular risks in obesity

Cardiovascular risks in obesity

Impact of excess weight on the patient’s life is not limited to lowering self-esteem or unaesthetic appearance.

Obesity is a serious risk factor for various secondary diseases, in particular cardiovascular.

Risk of such cardiovascular events as ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, increased blood pressure, heart failure is significantly increased in obese patients.

A probability, frequency and intensity of heart diseases directly depend on the body mass index (BMI). In obesity (BMI above 30 kg / m2), the risk of cardiovascular events is much higher than in overweight (BMI above 25 kg / m2).

The results of statistical studies prove that obesity is a risk factor for hypertension in more than 70% of cases, and coronary heart disease – in about 20% of cases.

Data obtained during the international study Intersalt confirms that risk of stroke increases by approximately 25% when enhancing body weight by 10 kg.

The likelihood of diseases of heart or blood circulation may vary in different forms and types of this polietiologic disease. For example, visceral obesity is one of the risk factors for increasing blood pressure.

Accumulation of excess fat around the internal organs significantly increases load on the heart and may cause various dystrophic disorders, thickening of the myocardium of the left ventricle, and increase in cardiac index.

Risk of heart failure and other damages to the cardiovascular system significantly increases in obese patients with a history of coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction.

The presence of excess fat may have a direct or indirect effect on function of the heart and / or blood vessels.

In particular, obesity may cause such risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, as:

  • hyperlipidemia
  • type 2 diabetes
  • insulin resistance syndrome.

When increasing body weight, lipid metabolism is disturbed that may cause damage to the blood vessels and formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This leads to clogging of the blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis caused by obesity is a risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, aortic stenosis, and circulatory disorders.

Restoration of healthy weight is one of the most effective ways to reduce cardiovascular risks in obesity. Results of the Swedish Obese Subjects Study confirm that the risk of cardiovascular events may decrease by an average of 5-25% when losing 28 kg or more.

Cardiovascular risks

However, in the presence of cardiovascular diseases (angina pectoris, infarction), very rapid weight loss may cause their aggravation. In this regard, obese patients with heart diseases should get rid of excess fat gradually.

When losing weight, reduction of fat deposits decreases load on the heart and blood vessels. Thus, decrease in body weight contributes to gradual restoration of cardiac function, including normalization of blood pressure and regulation of blood circulation.

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