The concept “cardiometabolic risk factors” unites a number of factors that lead to development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Today this definition is often used instead of a narrower concept – “metabolic syndrome”.
Cardiometabolic risk depends on many factors, but external factors are the key among them (unhealthy lifestyle, eating habits, and low physical activity). It is established that cardiometabolic risk factors can be caused by genetic factors along with environmental factors.
For example, pathology of the hormonal status and vascular mechanisms responsible for reduction of high blood pressure, kidney pathology and fat metabolism can be transmitted from parents to children.
Cardiometabolic risk factors include:
- Insulin resistance
- Coronary heart disease
- Excess body weight (abdominal obesity).
Incorrect nutrition, physical inertia and excessive alcohol use play an important role in development of cardiometabolic disorders.
Numerous studies have shown that some of the main cardiometabolic risk factors are arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia (dyslipidemia), and abdominal obesity.
Specialists have established pathogenetic connections between insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease.
Previously, it was considered that excess adipose tissue in the body is just a passive energy depot. However, fat tissue is not only under the skin. It is known that it is able to cover internal organs and impede their activity.
Today, one thing is clear that obesity is pathogenetically related to insulin resistance, is one of the key risk factors that generates development of cardiometabolic syndrome.
Cardiometabolic risk factors can be divided into two groups:
1. Unmodified (biological factors);
2. Modifiable (physiological and behavioral factors).
The first group includes risk factors that cannot be cured, namely the person’s age and sex, heredity, female climax, and target organs impairment.
It is established that biological factors, such as old age, hereditary predisposition, belonging to the male gender increase the risk of cardiometabolic disorders.
Menopause in itself is one of the most common risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders in women. Besides age-related changes, imbalance of sex hormones during this period contributes to development of cardiometabolic disorders.
The second group includes risk factors that amenable to correction. Obesity, smoking, hyperuricemia, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease – all these risk factors can be controlled and treated.
Timely recognized cardiometabolic risk factors amenable to treatment and correction help to reduce a risk of life-threatening complications.
These factors form a global cardiometabolic risk, increase development of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders by several times.
Studies show that moderate decrease in body weight by means of change in lifestyle provides a significant reduction of cardiometabolic risk.